Surveillance

Wet Market Surveillance Overview

Wet Market Surveillance

Wet Market Surveillance-2009

Wet Market Surveillance-2010

Hospital Based Rotavirus & Intussusception Surveillance (HBRIS)

IEDCR in collaboration with icddr,b has started hospital based Rotavirus & Intussusception surveillance in three selected hospitals across the country from July 2012. The objectives of this surveillance are to estimate the proportion of diarrhea hospitalization among children less than 5 years of age, which are attributable to rotavirus, to describe the predominant strain of rotavirus throughout Bangladesh, to determine the age, region and seasonal distribution of hospitalizations associated with rotavirus in the population under surveillance and to estimate the frequency of hospitalization associated with intussusception among children less than 2 years of age in surveillance hospitals. According to case definition data and samples are collected from the hospitals and sent to central level for analysis and laboratory test on a periodic basis. The results will be shared with all the study collaborators and stakeholders.

Priority communicable disease surveillance (PCDS)

Surveillance of priority communicable diseases started with a view to build up an early warning system. The diseases selected for reporting under this surveillance are: (1) Diarrhoeal diseases (Acute watery diarrhoea and Bloody dysentery), (2) Malaria, (3) Kala-azar, (4) Tuberculosis, (5) Leprosy, (6) Encephalitis and (7) Unknown diseases. These diseases were selected for reporting from all levels to the national head quarter on a weekly basis, but on a daily basis during an outbreak situation. Upazila Health and Family Planning Officer (UH&FPO) and Civil Surgeons (CS) are responsible for conducting this surveillance locally.

Acute meningo-encephalitis surveillance (AMES)

Acute Meningo-Encephalitis Surveillance (AMES) started in Bangladesh with the objectives of expanding the ongoing vaccine-preventable diseases surveillance to include Meningo-encephalitis, strengthening national capacity to detect important causes of Meningo-encephalitis and estimating incidence of vaccine-preventable causes of Meningo-encephalitis to provide vaccination in future. AMES started from October 2007 in collaboration with the partner organizations. Rajshahi, Khulna and Chittagong medical college hospitals were selected initially for the study. The meningo-encephalitis diseases selected for reporting under this surveillance are: (1) Japanese Encephalitis, (2) Nipah, (3) Dengue, (4) Other bacterial causes of encephalitis. The concerned surveillance physicians, Directors and Superintendants of the selected hospitals are responsible for conducting the surveillance locally and sending the reports bi-weekly.

Sentinel surveillance (SS)

It was started with the objective of covering maximum population from a selected community, focusing on people visiting the health care facilities for treatment as well as people who do not seek health care at any health care facilities. Initially, IEDCR started the surveillance in eight selected unions form one of the upazilas of eight selected districts. The diseases selected for reporting under this surveillance system are: (1) Diarrhoeal diseases (Acute watery diarrhoea and Bloody dysentery), (2) Malaria, (3) Kala-azar, (4) Tuberculosis, (5) Diphtheria, (6) Filaria, (7) Hepatitis, (8) Measles, (9) Meningitis, (10) Pneumonia, (11) Polio, (12) Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), (13) Tetanus, (14) Typhoid, (15) Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and (16) Whooping cough. These diseases were selected for bi-weekly reporting by the concerned UH&FPO and CS.

Institutional disease surveillance (IDS)

It was started with the objective of developing disease profiles for each institution for future planning of distribution of logistics and manpower. It covers all the medical college hospitals and specialized institutes in Bangladesh. The diseases selected for reporting were both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Besides the above mentioned seven priority communicable diseases, all the diseases reported at outpatient department (OPD) and inpatient department (IPD) were selected for reporting. Priority communicable diseases were scheduled for reporting on a weekly basis and the other disease profiles on a monthly basis. Directors and Superintendants of the hospitals and institutes are responsible for conducting this surveillance locally.

Surveillance through emergency outbreak investigations

Outbreak investigation is one of the key components of the activities of IEDCR. IEDCR responds to any unusual health events or diseases reported directly or indirectly to the Director, IEDCR on an emergency basis. National Rapid Response Team (NRRT), which is formed by the experts from IEDCR, conducts the outbreak investigations with the help of District Rapid Response Team (DRRT) and Upazila Rapid Response Team (URRT). Concerned UH&FPO, CS, Directors and Superintendants of the hospitals are responsible for reporting of any kind of outbreak situations. URRT and DRRT respond to any such kind of outbreak initially and send a preliminary report to the Director, IEDCR. NRRT responds according to the requirement and situation of the specific outbreak. IEDCR is responsible for preparing the outbreak investigation report, disseminating to the concerned authority and take initiatives to contain the outbreak immediately.
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